Stephen Garba, from Gowsa community in Borno State lost allis siblings and several relatives during a deadly Boko Haram attack seven years ago. Fortunately for him, on the day of attack, he had traveled to a nearby village .
This year marks the seventh year since violent attacks of Islamist group Boko Haram started to spill over Nigeria’s North-Eastern frontier in 2014.
According to data from the UNHCR, over 3.2 million people are displaced, including over 2.9 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in north-eastern Nigeria, and over 684,000 IDPs in Cameroon, Chad and Niger.
Life has become a struggle for Stephen who currently stays at one of the IDPs camp in Maiduguri with his four kids.
A three-month investigation by Gideon Sarpong and Elfredah Kevin-Alerechi based on interviews with dozens ofThe investigation also showed that unrest in places like northern Nigeria, Côte D’Ivoire, Burkina Faso and Mali has increased the demand for SALWs and significantly weakened the ability of their central governments to control their respective territories and the borders heightening insecurity in the subregion.
Illicit SALW production in West Africa
The proliferation of illicit SALWs has played an important role in the operations of non-state armed groups fueling their attacks in West Africa, particularly northern Nigeria and the Sahel region.
Abdullah Aziz is a 70-year-old gunsmith based in Bimbilla, the capital town of Nanumba North District in Ghana. Although, he acknowledges that manufacture of SALW is prohibited under Ghana’s laws and could face prosecution if he is arrested, it doesn’t deter him from engaging in the trade.
“I got the training from my father, and I have passed it on to my son. We recognize that the production of these guns is illegal but it is all I have known my entire life. We would like the government to regularize it and give us the necessary support,” he said.
Abdullah also claims that he doesn’t sell his craft weapons to “criminals and smugglers,” but there is no way he can control where his guns end up and what they might be used for.
The situation is not entirely different in Nigeria. Ibrahim Abdulahim, a blacksmith in Kano state, in northern Nigeria, has been a manufacturer of craft weapons for close to two decades. But until recently when he was mandated by law to regularize his operations, he admitted that he was “producing local weapons for everybody.”
With craft weapons selling between US$90 to US$150 in West Africa (depending on the type of firearm and level of technicality), the likes of Abdullah and Ibrahim can boast of a relatively comfortable standard of living. They are among thousands of gunsmiths and traffickers dotted across Ghana and the subregion cashing in on this illicit activity.
A 2020 report by the BBC estimated that gunsmiths in Ghana produced up to 200,000 guns a year. Considering that Ghana has not experienced any major conflict or violence that requires the use of arms on such a large scale, some experts have suggested that these craft weapons end up fueling conflicts in neighboring countries.
“We know that for as long as the blacksmiths exist and continue to perfect their trade in the various weapons and the ammunitions that they manufacture, there is certainty that some of these arms are involved in the conflicts in the subregion, said Yaro Kasambata, a security researcher at the University of Professional Studies in Accra.
Yaro however explained that, “to be able to point to or quantify them [craft-produced weapons] in their number or estimate is impossible because the trade currently is highly secret, it is illegal and even the state is unable to tell how many guns are manufactured.”
Meanwhile in Nigeria, a succession of state-level arms collection programmes beginning in 2016 has so far retrieved over 7000 weapons in Nigeria’s northern and central states, with craft-produced weapons being the majority according to a 2020 report by Conflict Armament Research.
While most improvised and craft-produced firearms are likely to be employed in the country in which they are manufactured, evidence points to an increase in the number of organized international transfers.
The report also showed that weapons that were documented during field operations in the three northern Nigerian states have commonalities with small arms previously in service with national defence forces in Cote d’Ivoire and with weapons that Conflict Armament Research has documented in Libya.
Retired senior army officer Colonel Chinedu Owhonda, has blamed the porous nature of borders within the west African region, particularly for the burgeoning illicit trafficking of arms.
“The Nigeria borders are so porous that the security agencies are not covering all the borders. There are over 2,000 entry points from the north to south of the country these terrorists use to bring arms into the country. And, all these borders cannot be manned by our security agencies we don’t have enough security officers to man these porous borders,” the retired Colonel disclosed.
Traffickers and trafficking routes
Several years of political instability and unrest in places like Libya, DR Congo, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Chad and other parts of the region and the resultant economic pressures and lack of security have, all “aided the proliferation and trafficking” of small arms in the region says Colonel Owhonda.
In April 2015, customs officials in Pô seized a vehicle which entered Burkina Faso from Ghana with a load of 250 kg of explosives, 200 pyrotechnic detonators, 350 metres of detonating cord, and five 50-litre jerry cans of cyanide.
According to the Small Arms Survey report, several incidents involving explosives smuggling have occurred in Pô and Zabré, pushing the authorities of Ghana, Burkina Faso, Benin, and Togo to launch a joint operation in 2018. The operation resulted in the dismantling of a smuggling ring suspected of affiliation to terrorism that operated along the border area shared by the three countries in the twin cities of Cinkansé (Burkina Faso) and Cikassé (Togo). The Ghana Police did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
Also, in June 2019, Nigeria’s Police Intelligence Response Unit arrested a notorious arms-smuggler, Ojomo Adebowale Gbenga alongside three members of his syndicate during an operation in the North-Western part of Nigeria.
Ojomo Adebowale Gbenga, who admitted to being a “gunrunner” for the last 15 years revealed that he worked closely with agents in Ghana and Burkina Faso who helped to facilitate the so-called ‘ants trafficking’ of cargo into Nigeria.
“I have contacts in Burkina Faso and Ghana… They conceal it [firearms] in a vehicle, under the floor of the vehicle. Perfectly concealed and sometimes they use hides and skins which they have it more in Burkina Faso and the Sahara areas,” he told the police.
Although the matter is still in court, a statement from Police PRO DCP Frank Mba, indicates that the syndicate, “specializes in smuggling SALWs and ammunition” from the Sahel region and in West Africa.
Their activities “overlap” with that of other criminal networks, “ranging from kidnapping, armed robbery, banditry and cattle rustling,” the statement confirmed.
These reports also confirm trafficking routes published by the European Council on Foreign Relations focused on West Africa and the Sahel region.